This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Foundation, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) heads of state and governments meet in Kempton Park.
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is set up under Bishop Desmond Tutu.
Labour Relations Act No 66:
Repealed the 1956 Industrial Conciliation Act and all its amendments.
Commenced: 11 November 1996.
State of Emergency Act No 86 [SA]
Repealed the 1953 Public Safety Act [SA], as amended.
Commission of Inquiry into Unrest in Prisons - Appointed by the President on 27 June 1994 Mandate:
1)To inquire into, consider and report on the causes, course and consequences of the unrest that occurred in South African prisons during the period 26 April 1994 to 13 June 1994;
2)to investigate the circumstances and causes of any deaths or injuries which occurred in the said unrest;
3)to recommend steps that can be taken to prevent the future occurrence of such unrest or to minimise its risk; and
4)to inquire into and report to the President on any matter which seems to the Commission to be relevant to the proceedings.
Date of Report: February 1995
Chair: KRIEGLER, J. C.
Ref: R 125/1994
Commission of Inquiry into Alleged Arms Transactions between Armscor and one Eli Wazan, and other Related Matters Mandate:
1)To inquire into, consider and report on-
a)all aspects and surrounding circumstances of the transaction's between Armscor and one Eli Wazan for the sale of weapons, arms components and related materials;
b)the facts relating to other arms deals and other transactions relating to arms components and related material since 2 February 1990, with a view to identifying any possible similarities between such other transactions and the transaction's referred to in paragraph (a) above;
c)the identity of all persons, parties and'or countries involved in such transactions and their antecedents;
d)whether there was any connection between such transactions and any other matter;
e)whether such transactions violated-
i)any law and or ii)any international embargo;
f)whether prima facie evidence exists indicating that any person committed-
i)a criminal offence; or ii)serious misconduct, negligence or impropriety.
2)To comment, in the context of South Africa's national and international obligations and responsibilities, on the appropriateness of-
a)South Africa's current trade policy with regard to weapons, arms components and related materials; and b) decision-making processes with regard to such trade.
3)To submit an interim report (and further interim reports) as soon as possible.
Date of Report:
First Report: 15 June 1995
Second Report: 20 November 1995
Chair: CAMERON, E
Ref:First Report: S 297/208
Second Report: S 297/215
Brigitte Mabandla becomes deputy minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology.
Geraldine Fraser-Moleketi becomes chairperson of National Preparatory Committee and deputy leader of delegation to Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing.
Compulsory schooling introduced on a gradual basis for black children in January starting with the enrolment in Sub A of all six-year-olds (RRS 1994/95: 267). In a draft white paper on education published in September 1994, it was proposed that children between the ages of five and fourteen be required by law to attend school. This differed from the existing provisions for other race groups: it had been compulsory for white and coloured children to attend school between the ages of six and sixteen years; for Indian children the upper limit was fifteen years of age (RRS 1989/90: 808).
5 January 1995
Allan Boesak, charged with financial impropriety, agrees to not take up the post of Ambassador to the United Nations.
6 January 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Ethiopia.
9 January 1995
Home Affairs Minister Buthelezi, is appointed chairman of the KwaZulu/Natal House of Traditional Leaders Executive Committee.
10 January 1995
General Johan van der Merwe resigns as Police Commissioner. He is succeeded by General George Fivaz.
Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Panama.
South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
12 January 1995
South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Guatemala.
18 January 1995
Heated discussion occurs at a cabinet meeting and President Mandela casts doubt on the commitment of second Deputy President F.W. de Klerk over the indemnity issue of 3,500 policemen.
24 January 1995
President Mandela arrived in Delhi, as chief guest at Republic Day.
25 January 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of India on the inter-governmental Joint Commission for Political Trade, Economic, Cultural, Scientific and Technical cooperation.
South Africa:Signs protocol on cooperation between the Department of Foreign Affairs of South Africa and the Ministry of External Affairs of India.
South Africa:Signs treaty of the principles of inter-state relations with India.
South Africa:Signs cooperation agreement with India concerning the fields of science and technology
26 January 1995
South Africa:Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Kingdom of Cambodia.
The far right wing decides to boycott the October 1995 local government elections.
Portugal disapproves the appointment of white ultra-right personality. Tom Langley. as the country's ambassador designate.
Mid Feb:IFP members walk out of Parliament during the debate on President Mandela's keynote parliamentary address, in which the issue of international mediation and federal plans for KwaZulu/Natal were discussed.
1 February 1995
Convention between South Africa and Belgium for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with Respect to Taxes on Income.
2 February 1995
Signs memorandum of understanding with the government of the Federal Republic of Germany concerning direct cooperation in the field of labour and labour related matters.
3 February 1995
Signs joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Suriname.
10 February 1995
South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding with the government of the United Kingdom concerning British technical cooperation.
14 February 1995
The Constitutional Court is inaugurated.
14 February 1995
Official opening of the Constitutional Court, with Arthur Chaskalson as President.
15 February 1995
South Africa establishes diplomatic relations with Palestine.
President Nelson Mandela announces he will not be standing for re-election in 1999.
17 February 1995
South Africa signs agreement with Namibia regarding the transfer of military facilities in the enclave of Walvis Bay to Namibia.
Following violent student protests in Cape Town on 16 February, President Mandela warns in Parliament that he will not tolerate anarchy developing in the country.
20 February 1995
South Africa:Signs air services agreement with the Austrian Federal government.
Signs development cooperation agreement with the government of Sweden.
21 February 1995
The Ministry of Mineral and Energy Affairs signs memorandum of understanding with the Ministry of Industry and Energy of Spain on cooperation in the field of energy.
22 February 1995
Signs agreement with the International Organization for Migration regarding the legal status, privileges and immunities of the tom.
23 February 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with the International Committee of the Red Cross.
27 February 1995
South Africa:Signs bilateral air transport agreement with the government of Gabon.
South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of the United Kingdom on cooperation in science and technology.
28 February 1995
Joint statement of intent by President Mandela of South Africa and President Chissano of the Republic of Mozambique and the presidents of the agricultural unions of the Free State and Transvaal.
Signs agreement with Mozambique regarding tourism.
Convention on the International Maritime Organization (1948).
1 March 1995
Statement of intent between the governments of South Africa and the United States to establish the South Africa-US Binational Commission
The Coloured Liberation Movement for the Advancement of Brown People, launched to generate the interest of South Africa's Coloured people against racial discrimination, claims a membership of 100,000 people.
Signs agreement with the government of Mozambique regarding cooperation and mutual assistance in combating crime.
2 March 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with the government of Zimbabwe for the establishment of a Joint Commission for Economic, Technical, Scientific and Cultural cooperation.
5 March 1995
IFP decides to end its parliamentary boycott of mid-February.
10 March 1995
South Africa abolished financial rand, effective 13 March. The value of financial rand was close to that of commercial rand
16 March 1995
South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding on development cooperation with Belgium.
20 March 1995
Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain, addresses the South African Parliament.
22 March 1995
Joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Independent State of Western Samoa.
23 March 1995
Joint communiqué on the establishment of diplomatic relations with the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Memorandum of understanding between the government of South Africa, through the Department of Transport, and the Federal Transit Highway Administration of the Department of Transportation of the US concerning transportation research and technology transfer.
27 March 1995
Winnie Mandela, Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, is dismissed from her post.
27 March 1995
Nelson Mandela announced dismissal of Winnie Mandela as Deputy Minister.
29 March 1995
Signs agreement with Egypt for the establishment of a Joint Commission of Cooperation.
Cabinet approves the establishment of the Truth Commission.
A government inquiry concludes that Allan Boesak did not misappropriate Dan Church aid funds. The fund threatens to sue him for the return of missing funds.
2 April 1995
The ANC announces at its Conference on Constitutional Policy, that there will be no enforced coalition after the 1999 general election.
5 April 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Tunisia on tourism cooperation.
Signs agreement with Tunisa for the establishment of a Joint
5 April 1995
IFP gave an ultimatum that it would boycott the Constituent Assembly if last year's mediation agreement was not honoured.
8 April - 13 April 1995
Mandela visited Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain and UAE to promote trade and cultural links. (He was accompanied by Ahmed Kathrada and Anthony Mongolo.)
13 April 1995
Commission of Cooperation. In a letter to Chief Buthelezi, Deputy President Mbeki rejects the IFP's international mediation proposals.
14 April 1995
Winnie Mandela resigns as Deputy Minister of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology, hours before her second official dismissal.
17 April 1995
Winnie Mandela resigned as Deputy Minister, a day before her dismissal was to take effect.
21 April 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement on maritime transport with the Netherlands.
21 April 1995
IFP reaffirmed its decision to suspend participation in the Constituent Assembly because of dispute over international mediation.
24 April 1995
Voter registration for the forthcoming November local government election is extended to 5 June.
The Volkstaat Council abandons the idea of an Afrikaner homeland and opts for a Cultural Citizens' Council, economic development sub-region and a share in the Pretoria area.
Chief Buthelezi, denies that the document entitled 'A Minimal Institutional Strategy to Promote Federalism and Pluralism from the KwaZulu/Natal Base' is official IFP policy.
1 May 1995
May Day rally addressed by President Mandela at Umlazi. He was escorted from stadium in armoured car when shots were fired from a hill.
He warned that grant to KwaZulu-Natal may be stopped if it resists government (as Chief Buthelezi threatened).
5 May 1995
South Africa:Signs amendments to articles 24 and 25 of the Constitution of the World Health Organization (1986).
Signs letter of intent with Bulgaria regarding arts, culture, science and technology and sport.
8 May 1995
Signs agreement with government of Belgium regarding cooperation between the South African police service and the Belgian Gendarmerie.
Joint communiqué between the Minister of External Relations of Brazil and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Africa.
9 May 1995
South Africa:Signs declaration of intent with the government of Belgium concerning education.
Signs agreement on encouragement and reciprocal protection of investments with the Netherlands.
10 May 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement upgrading existing diplomatic relations with Nigeria.
Signs agreement establishing diplomatic relations with Niger.
17 May 1995
Unita leader Jonas Savimbi meets President Mandela in Cape Town.
Parliament approves legislation to set up a Truth Commission.
24 May 1995
Signs specific agreement with the government of Belgium on cooperation in the field of health.
Signs memorandum of understanding on development cooperation with the government of Australia.
The IFP withdraws from the inter-governmental forum which provides for liaison between the central and provincial governments.
26 May 1995
Signs agreement with Finland for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
President Mandela admits during a Senate speech that he ordered
President Mandela admits during a Senate speech that he ordered ANC security guards to shoot to kill in protecting ANC headquarters at Shell House from an armed IFP march on the building which occurred on 28 March 1994.
Amendments are made to the Truth Commission legislation that was passed in May. Parliament agrees to establish it.
5 June 1995
Letter of intent concerning arts, culture, science and technology and sport between South Africa and Bulgaria.
Protocol on consultations between the Department of Foreign Affairs of South Africa and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
Signs agreement on the waiver of visas for diplomatic and official/service passports with Bulgaria.
6 June 1995
The Constitutional Court abolishes the death penalty.
14 June 1995
South Africa:Signs declaration of intent on cooperation with the Russian Federation in the field of arts and culture.
20 June 1995
Signs extradition agreement with the government of Lesotho.
The ANC and SACP stalwart, Harry Gwala, dies.
21 June 1995
Convention between the governments of South Africa and Denmark for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income.
A Draft White Paper on Defence is released.
27 June 1995
South africa:Signs agreement with the Swiss Federal Council on the promotion and reciprocal protection of investments.
Protocol of intent on military cooperation between the Ministry of Defence of South Africa and the Ministry of Defence of the Slovak Republic.
28 June 1995
Name changes to three of South Africa's nine provinces are announced: PWV becomes Gauteng; Orange Free State becomes the Free State and the Northern Transvaal becomes the Northern Province.
Judicial Commission of Inquiry into Armscor, chaired by Justice Edwin Cameron, finds that it was involved in clandestine arms shipment to conflict zones, the Lebanese government, Christian militia and also to warring factions in the former Yugoslavia.
5 July 1995
Exchange of notes with Australia to establish an arrangement for the exchange of personnel.
7 July 1995
South Africa:Signs air services agreement with the government of Korea.
Convention between South Africa and Korea for the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income.
Memorandum of understanding between the Ministry of Trade and Industry of South Africa and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy of Korea.
Signs agreement with the government of Korea on the promotion and protection of investments.
9 July 1995
Ex-Poliee Commissioner General Johan van der Merwe, implicates Deputy President F.W. de Klerk in being informed about a dirty tricks' campaign waged against the ANC to undermine it between 1990 and the 1994 election.
14 July 1995
South Africa and Russia sign a military cooperation agreement.
Signs agreement with the Ministry of Defence of the Ukraine on cooperation in the military sphere.
Signs agreement with the government of the Ukraine on military-technical cooperation.
18 July 1995
South Africa:Signs air services agreement with the government of Australia.
19 July 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with India on cooperation in the fields of science and technology.
21 July 1995
Internal Peace Institution Act Repeal Act No 28:
Repealed the 1992 Internal Peace Institutions Act and provided for matters connected to it.
Commenced: 21 July 1995
IN FORCE: CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.
A cooperation agreement is reached between South Africa and Swaziland over the issue of thwarting arms smuggling.
3 August 1995
South Africa:Signs protocol on environmental protection to the Antarctic Treaty (1991).
9 August 1995
South African women celebrate the first National Women's day.
10 August 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Swaziland in respect of cooperation and mutual assistance in the field of combating crime.
15 August 1995
Iranian Foreign Minister, Ali Akbar Velayati, visits South Africa in connection with South Africa's agreement to store and market up to million barrels of Iranian oil. This will assist Tehran in sidestepping sanctions imposed by Washington on Iran. The USA criticizes this arrangement.
Signs agreement with Iran concerning the establishment of a joint Commission of Cooperation.
22 August 1995
Minister of Safety and Security, Sydney Mufamadi, visits violence-torn KwaZulu/Natal. He states that 1000 extra troops and police will be sent to the province as reinforcements.
25 August 1995
Signs cooperation agreement with the United States concerning peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
Terms of reference of the Sustainable Development Committee of the United States-South African Binational Commission.
Chief Buthelezi indicates that he will resign if divisions within the party are not resolved.
Cabinet approves immediate demobilization of over 10,000 MK and APLA soldiers and the rationalization of 50,000 personnel from the SANDF. This reduces the military from a force level of 135,000 to 75,000.
11 September 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Germany regarding technical cooperation.
Signs treaty with Germany concerning reciprocal encouragement and protection of investments.
Signs basic agreement with Germany concerning the secondment of development works of the German Development Service.
12 September 1995
South Africa:Signs framework agreement for financial cooperation with the European Investment Bank.
13 September 1995
Signs agreement with Israel concerning the establishment of a joint Commission of Cooperation.
Convention on Prohibition or Restriction on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be deemed to be Excessively Injurous or to have Indiscriminate Effects and Protocols (1980).
15 September 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with the Palestine Liberation Organisation, representing the 21 State of Palestine, regarding the establishment of a Joint Commission of Cooperation.
19 September 1995
South Africa:Signs memorandum of understanding with Iran on cooperation in the fields of mining and minerals.
Signs protocol on consultation with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Poland.
22 September 1995
The Constitutional Court rules that President Nelson Mandela exceeded his power by decreasing electoral boundaries.
2 October 1995
Muziwendoda Mdluli of the National Intelligence Agency, is found shot dead in his car in Silverton, Pretoria. He was investigating the possible involvement of fellow-agents in the failed Comoros Islands coup.
4 October 1995
Identification Amendment Act No 47:
Amended the 1986 Identification Act so as to repeal certain obsolete provisions, and ordered, with retrospective effect, that a new population register be compiled and maintained.
Commenced: 4 October 1995
IN FORCE: CENSUS AND STATISTICS.
6 October 1995
State of Emergency Act No 86:
Provides for the declaration of a state of emergency as well as empowering the President to make regulations in consequence of such a declaration.
Commenced: 6 October 1995
IN FORCE: CRIMINAL LAW AND PROCEDURE.
South African Citizenship Act No 88:
Provides for the acquisition, loss and resumption of South African citizenship. Unlike the 1993 Restoration and Extension of South African Citizenship Act, this Act deals, inter alia, with situations where citizenship was renounced or lost on such grounds as, for example, being a child or already being a citizen of another country.
Commenced: 6 October 1995
IN FORCE: CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.
11 October 1995
South Africa:Signs financial protocol with the government of France.
Signs agreement with the government of France concerning the reciprocal promotion and protection of investments.
24 October 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Lesotho concerning the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
The Draft constitution is unveiled.
1 November 1995
Local government elections are held.
2 November 1995
Former South African Defence Minister, General Magnus Malan and nineteen others are charged with murder and for having established hit squads to destabilize South Africa before the end of apartheid. They are further charged for the 1987 massacre of thirteen people in Durban's Kwamakutha township.
4 November 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with France on co-operation in the fields of education, sport, culture, science and technology.
6 November 1995
Convention between the governments of South Africa and Italy concerning the Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and for the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion.
8 November 1995
It is reported that the SANDFs full-time component comprises 75,479 personnel, including 39,473 Africans, 28,192 Whites, 6,982 Coloureds, and 832 indians.
10 November 1995
Results of the local government elections are published: 51.37% participated, 5.3 million people in total. The ANC is the overall winner, securing 66.37% of the votes cast. Voting was postponed in the Western Cape and KwaZulu/Natal province.
20 November 1995
South Africa:Signs coopertion agreement with Bulgaria concerning education, arts, culture, science, technology and sport.
21 November 1995
South Africa:Signs protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and relating to the Protection of Victims of international Armed Conflicts (Protocol I).
Signs protocol additional to the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 11).
27 November 1995
Convention with the government of Canada fur the Avoidance of Double Taxation and the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion with respect to Taxes on Income.
Signs agreement with Canada concerning the promotion and protection of investments.
Signs agreement with the Russian Federation for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income.
Signs protocol with the Russian Federation on Consular procedure.
South Africa and Australia sign an extradition treaty with effect from 1996.
Archbishop Desmond Tutu is appointed head of the Truth Commission
South Africa signs a business arrangement with Malaysia, allowing for the manufacture, under licence in Malaysia, of the South African designed attack helicopter, the Rooivalk.
A Coloured breakaway party from the Coloured Resistance Movement is established. It is called the Coloured Liberation Movement (CLM). Its leader is Michael Roman.
1 December 1995
General Magnus Malan and nineteen co-accused are formally charged with murder for killing thirteen people in Durbans Kwamakutha township in 1987.
1 December 1995
Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Act No 34:
Provided for investigation towards the establishment of as complete a picture as possible of the nature, causes and extent of gross violations of human rights committed during the period from 1 March 1960 to the cut-off date contemplated in the Constitution.
Commenced: 1 December 1995
IN FORCE (as amended by the Promotion of National Unity and Reconciliation Amendment Act No 87 of 1995): CONSTITUTIONAL LAW.
5 December 1995
South Africa:Signs economic, technical and related assistance agreement with the United States.
Signs agreement with the Unites States concerning the program of the Peace Corps in South Africa.
Signs framework agreement with the United States concerning cooperation in the scientific, technological and environmental fields.
Signs agreement with the United States on collaboration in energy policy science, technology and development.
7 December 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with the Republic of China regarding technical assistance for the establishment of a vocational training centre.
8 December 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Cuba for the promotion and reciprocal protection of investments.
13 December 1995
South Africa:Signs general memorandum of understanding with Canada on development cooperation.
15 December 1995
South Africa:Signs agreement with Denmark concerning community forestry in the Bushbuchridge area in the province of Mpumalanga.
Signs agreement with Denmark on the development of a White Paper on Biological Diversity for the Republic of South Africa.
Signs agreement with Denmark concerning capacity building in the
Directorate of Environment, Department of Development Planning,
Environment and Works in the Province of Gauteng.
Signs agreement with Denmark concerning capacity building in the
Department of Environmental Affairs in the province of Mpumalanga.
OAU Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa (1969).