This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.
Chapter 1 - Founding Provisions
Republic of South Africa
1. The Republic of South Africa is one, sovereign, democratic state founded on the following values:
Supremacy of Constitution
2. This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic; law or conduct inconsistent with it is invalid, and the obligations imposed by it must be fulfilled.
3. (1) There is a common South African citizenship.
(2) All citizens are
(3) National legislation must provide for the acquisition, loss and restoration of citizenship.
4. The national anthem of the Republic is determined by the President by proclamation.
5. The national flag of the Republic is black, gold, green, white, red and blue, as described and sketched in Schedule 1.
6. (1) The official languages of the Republic are Sepedi, Sesotho, Setswana, siSwati, Tshivenda, Xitsonga, Afrikaans, English, isiNdebele, isiXhosa and isiZulu.
(2) Recognising the historically diminished use and status of the indigenous languages of our people, the state must take practical and positive measures to elevate the status and advance the use of these languages.
(4) The national government and provincial governments, by legislative and other measures, must regulate and monitor their use of official languages. Without detracting from the provisions of subsection (2), all official languages must enjoy parity of esteem and must be treated equitably.
(5) A Pan South African Language Board established by national legislation must
i all official languages;
ii the Khoi, Nama and San languages; and
iii sign language ; and
i all languages commonly used by communities in South Africa, including German, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Portuguese, Tamil, Telegu and Urdu; and
ii Arabic, Hebrew, Sanskrit and other languages used for religious purposes in South Africa.