This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.
Report, main decisions and recommendations of the Second National Consultative Conference of the African National Congress - Zambia.
The Conference was attended by 250 delegates and special invitees by the National Executive Committee. The delegates and invitees came from all the places where we have ANC branches, units and students. The bulk came from the three main areas where we have the concentration of our membership - Tanzania, Angola and Zambia. The full list of Conference participants is compiled separately.
The first part of the Conference was dedicated to the three main reports of the NEC. These were the Political Statement presented by Comrade President OR Tambo; the Organisational Report, presented by Comrade Secretary General Alfred Nzo; and the Financial Statement, presented by Comrade Treasurer General TT Nkobi. The full texts of these statements will accompany this report.
The second part of the Conference proceedings was taken up by Commission and Plenary Sessions on the reports of the various commissions. At the very end of the Conference deliberations a new National Executive Committee was elected by Conference. Opening Remarks The Conference started off with the singing of the National Anthem. Comrade Dan Tloome, who chaired the opening session, briefly outlined the significance of the period chosen for the holding of this Second National Consultative Conference (the first being the historic Morogoro Conference of 1969). Originally the dates set for the Conference were from the 16th June (Soweto Day) to June 26th (our National Day). But it was later decided to complete Conference business a bit earlier than originally planned. This was possible because most of the discussions had taken place during the pre-Conference preparatory work and in the various commissions held during Conference itself.
When opening the Conference, the President, Comrade O,R Tambo, started off by underlining that our Conference was taking place in the wake of increasing violence and acts of aggression and assassinations by the Pretoria regime. Only two days earlier the racist mercenaries had killed fifteen people in Botswana. These included our members, nationals of Botswana, and nationals of other countries who were caught up in the raid. Conference rose to observe a minute's silence for the fallen comrades and friends.
In continuing his opening remarks the President noted that we need to convey our deepest gratitude to the Party and Government of the Republic of Zambia for making it possible for the ANC to hold its Second National Consultative Conference on Zambian soil.
The President announced that three members of the outgoing National Executive Committee were absent from the Conference. These were Comrades Moses Mabhida (ill), Florence Mophosho (ill) and Josiah Jele (on assignment abroad). Also absent from the Conference were our leaders who are locked up on Robben Island and Pollsmoor Prison inside the country.
The President then proceeded to read the message that came from Comrade Nelson Mandela and our leaders in jail. The message expressed great hope that this Consultative Conference will be yet another milestone in the history of the development of our struggle. The message also noted that despite the great distance that divides us, there was commonness and unity in approach. The ANC must raise mass activity to ever higher levels.
Other messages read out to Conference were from Comrades Moses Mabhida and Florence Mophosho.
After the opening remarks, the first lot of solidarity and support messages were read out. These came from the President of Senegal, the OAU Secretariat, the Party and Government of the GDR, the Swedish Social Democratic Party, Evangelical Council of Churches, the Central Committee of the USSR, the British Labour Party, the UN Special Committee Against Apartheid, the Romanian Communist Party, British Council of Churches, IUS, TASS, WPC, PLO (Arafat), CARE in Australia, Mozambican Association for Friendship, Dutch Anti-Apartheid Movement, International Defence and Aid Fund, Solidarity Committee of Bulgaria, West German Anti-Apartheid Movement, Chinese Peoples' Association for Friendship, Socialist International, the Central Committee of the Workers Party of Ethiopia, the Social Council of Ghana, People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan, NUS (England), American Committee on Africa, World Marxist Review, Anti-Apartheid Movement of France, City of Reggio Emilia (Italy), Swedish Ambassador to Tanzania, Solidarity and Peace Council of Cuba, Ford Organisation (Denmark), All-India Peace and Solidarity Organisation.
The messages are compiled separately and are attached to this report. The messages were read out to Conference in instalments throughout the duration of Conference.
After the first batch of fraternal messages were read out, the President delivered his political statement to Conference. The statement reviewed the political developments inside the country covering the post-Morogoro Conference period up to the present stage of our struggle. The first part was read out on the 16th and the second part on the 17th. The report took about six hours to complete. The text of the Presidential Statement is printed separately and forms part of the Conference documents.
At the end of the address by the President, other 1 solidarity messages were read out. These came from Swapo, WDF, SACP, Sactu, Communist Party of the USA, WFDTU, WFDY, and Socialist Unity Party of New Zealand.
After this item of fraternal messages, a report of the National Preparatory Committee was given. The report dealt with the work done by the Preparatory Committee from the time of its inception up to the beginning of Conference itself. The culmination point of the work of the Preparatory Committee was the Composite Report compiled from the Regional Conference reports and contributions by individuals and units on the various topics canvassed for Conference. A full text of the report also forms part of the final Conference documents.
Following the report of the NPC came the report of the Secretary General of the ANC, Comrade Alfred Nzo. The report dealt with the organisational activities of the ANC both inside and outside the country starting from the Morogoro Conference decisions. The full text of this report forms part of the overall report on Conference.
The Secretary General's report was followed by the Treasurer General's report on the financial standing of the Movement. It full text, too, forms part of the overall Conference reports. Agenda The agenda for the Conference proceedings was formally put to the House and adopted. The final agenda then was as follows:
Ø National Anthem
Ø Remarks by the Chairman
Ø Opening by the President
Ø Fraternal Messages (first batch) 2. Main NEC Reports
Ø Political statement - by the President
Ø Organisational report - by the Secretary General
Ø Financial report - by the Treasurer General
3. Work of the commissions (lasting about three days)
4. Plenary sessions to discuss reports from commissions
5. Elections and resolutions
6. Closing session Conference Committees For purposes of facilitating the work of Conference the following committees were set up:
The commissions that were finally decided upon were as follows:
The delegates did not discuss these reports in detail. The understanding was that some of the aspects raised in these reports would come up in commissions.
These are therefore the first preliminary comments made by delegates from the floor.
Refugee mentality: Comrade Magapatona felt that the term refugee mentality was not clearly defined. He also felt that the main weakness in our work is lack of guidance and leadership from above. Misplacement of cadres: Comrade Magapatona also underlined that one of our weaknesses is the misplacement of our cadres. He quoted the case of a comrade who did agriculture as a specialty but in practice is working at Headquarters as a driver. He further mentioned the lack of consultation before opening up projects like the farm. A new farm has been bought in Lusaka before there has been a proper assessment of the viability of the first one by our economists. What is the justification for buying a new one?
Many casualties: Comrade Mzala wanted to know why we have so many casualties inside the country. Funds into the country: Comrade Mzala also posed the question as to how much money was directed home as against the amount spent outside.
After these preliminary discussions the delegates felt that Conference should break into commissions in the hope that all questions will be gone into in the commissions and the plenary sessions following the commission reports. Solidarity Messages: Algeria (President), Botswana (President), Zimbabwe (External Affairs), Ghana (Foreign Affairs), Jamaica, Lesotho Peace and Solidarity Committee, Central Committee of the Communist Party of Bulgaria, London Rally of 25,000 participants led by Bob Hughes, MP and Father Huddleston.
Constitutional Guidelines, Codes and Structures Arising from the discussions:
There was also a feeling expressed that for purposes of effective specialisation we should adopt a 'one person one job' approach in assigning tasks to NEC members. The distribution of these tasks amongst NEC members is to be done by the NEC itself.
Group of Five: Conference was informed of the existence of an inner core in the NEC called the Group of Five or the Presidential Committee.
The main reasons for adopting this step were that the ANC is today the leader of all South Africans from all racial groups. Comrades from other racial groups have laid down their lives for the cause of freedom.
Replying to the question as to whether we have consulted our people and leadership inside the country, Comrade President explained to Conference that originally we came out of the country with the understanding that we would go back quickly. This did not happen. By and large the leadership of the Movement 3 devolves on our shoulders. Despite the fact that the majority of our members are inside the country, the National Consultative Conference can take decisions on the question and explain to the rest how we came to such conclusions. In Morogoro we could not take a decision, but now think we should open membership to all.
Finally, the matter was put to a vote. The results were: 225 for opening membership; 2 against; 3 abstentions.
To be headed by a member of the NEC
Ø Tasks to be defined
Ø There is need for the leadership to account to the membership. Foreign Policy Contributions by delegates:
Ø The International Department is weak on the continent of Africa. We need more representatives.
Ø The work of the International Department should be in line with Internal work.
Ø Chief Representatives should avoid rushing into claiming or disowning armed operations inside the country. Rather, they should get their lead from Headquarters.
The Chief Representative himself/herself should be an ex-officio member of the Regional Finance Committee.
Ø We must have a tighter system of control.
Ø Politicise our members.
Ø Action must be taken against offenders (thieving and looting). Transport:
Ø Our handling of transport is bad. We need to work out guidelines on transport handling.
Ø A pooling system should be introduced (except for cars used by the President, the Secretary General, the Treasurer General and operatives in sensitive areas of work).
Ø Comrades in charge of transport should have specialised training on transport management.
On the question of accidents, a view was expressed that perhaps we should have women as our drivers to reduce the damage caused to our transport by our male comrades. This needs to be explored. Projects: Our members should be involved in the running of our projects. We should also eliminate the misconception given to our membership that projects are 'punishment areas'. The Movement should work towards producing qualified personnel for our projects i.e. qualified auditors, regional treasurers, carpenters, builders and other relevant specialists in vocational and technical skills. Political Orientation of use of Funds: This was a general assessment made by one of the delegates on the Treasury report. This assessment on the use of funds was that expenditure is not geared towards lifting the struggle inside the country. Additionally, there was no mention of projects funded by ANC inside the country.
Another comrade from the West also mentioned the fact that the Treasury report does not reflect the needs of the Army.
On the question of allowances (money) for marriages, the comrade also indicated that there were discrepancies (i.e. no uniformity).
These points were not actually discussed by Conference, but were noted. Education, Culture and Health Comments from the Floor:
The argument that the problems of the Health Department are problems of growth is not acceptable. The department has been in existence now for a number of years and in the process we are losing lives of comrades. For example, in East Africa there is no screening of children against diseases like TB.
The Secretariat of the Health Department is not discussing with its members, hence there is no collective spirit in the department.
Why are the leaders of the Health Department not based at Headquarters?
One view was that the whole Secretariat should be dismissed. The other view was that the Secretariat 4 should be reshuffled.
Comrades Chris Hani and Pallo Jordan jointly chaired the plenary discussion on the Commission on Strategy and Tactics. Comrade Joe Slovo, the rapporteur, read the report. The full text is appended hereto.
The report pointed out that the Commission felt that the draft document placed before it required more thorough discussion throughout the ranks of our Movement at unit, branch and regional level and that the incoming NEC be charged with the responsibility for setting up a sub-committee to attend to this task. In addition, a number of significant omissions in the first draft were noted, including a definition of the epoch during which our struggle is unfolding, the role of the working class in our struggle, the revolutionary alliance and our international allies. The Commission had also felt that the style in which the draft was written did not lend itself to easy accessibility by the mass of our people outside our Movement's ranks.
The Commission addressed itself to seven main topics:
On the Bantustans, one comrade criticised the report in that it seemed to suggest that Bantustans were synonymous with rural areas, whereas in a number of instances urban areas are included within the borders of Bantustans. It was also stressed that we need to pay greater attention to the opposition parties in the Bantustans and explore ways and means of drawing these into the struggle. The role patriotic chiefs could play and those elements not fully committed to the regime was emphasised.
On the general question of who could be mobilised, one contribution pointed out that a revolution that excluded Christians in South Africa would be a revolution that excluded the people. In the light of this she recommended that a special NEC group visit Nicaragua to study their experience in this respect.
The distribution of tasks within the incoming NEC should reflect the priority we are giving to the home front. NEC members should be placed to give practical guidance and the leadership should cut back on foreign travel to concentrate on work inside the country.
The role of the working class was again emphasised and attention was drawn to the activities of the African-American Labour Centre, whose objectives are to win support for US policies amongst our trade unionists. It was stressed that the mobilisation and organisation of workers is the responsibility of all parties to the alliance and that we must place special emphasis on the key industrial areas.
The prosecution of the struggle requires the increased infiltration of trained cadres and an effort to reduce our reliance on ordnance and logistical support from outside by increasingly seizing our arms from the enemy. It was also suggested that the Luthuli Detachment be reactivated and involved in MK work.
After the contributions, Comrade Slovo summed up the discussion, noting the value of a number of individual contributions from the floor.
On mass mobilisation the Commission report recommended that:
Ø We should be active in all organisations, including reactionary organisations, and trade unions.
Ø We need to be active in democratic mass organisations.
The trade unions are working towards the formation of a united, democratic trade union federation. This development has its own difficulties. The working class is bedeviled by ideological problems
It is necessary for the ANC, Sactu and the SACP to work towards closer co-operation and knock out a 5 common programme of action.
The role of Sactu is very vital but needs to be clearly defined. Our training programme should include work among the trade unions.
The true liberation of our womenfolk can only come about with the destruction of the apartheid system. The organisation and mobilisation of women should be linked up with the national liberation movement and trade unions. Women in the rural areas should be organised, exploiting existing traditional structural forms of organisation.
Bantustan administrators ban all democratic trade unions and organisations.
Ø Farm workers are politically isolated. But still our organisers from the urban areas must find ways and means of reaching these rural masses. Armed propaganda must continue. In our work we must distinguish between the puppet bantustan administrations and the masses. We should revive areas with traditions of resistance and revolt. We should destroy border farms. Hostel dwellers must also be involved in our organisational efforts.
We should identify the social problems of our youth and students and guide them in action. Influences of Trotskyites and NEUM should be combated. We should have ANC cores in all youth and student organisations. We should extend our work to the religious youth. Our Church front should be reinforced. Youth going into the country should be fully briefed on our work on this Front. The core of the youth movement should be working class. This movement should, in turn, be linked up with bodies like the UDF.
They operate at grassroots level, but tend to limit themselves to local issues. We must work towards linking these struggles with the overall national liberation movement.
The problem of the national image of the UDF is in the process of being resolved, with the blacks now forming the majority in its leadership.
Ø We should strike at enemy personnel.
Ø We should shift the struggle from the black ghettoes into the white areas.
Ø The stress should be on training inside the country.
Ø Increase the presence of white, coloured and Indian comrades in the ranks of MK.
Ø We should strive to get our weapons from inside the country.
Ø We should work among enemy forces, including the Bantustans. Internal Propaganda.
Our internal propaganda should play an increasing role. It should be put on a war footing and complement MK activities for mobilising and organising the masses. It should be in dynamic contact with the people. We should explore possibilities of having mobile Radio Freedom stations inside the country.
The political and military operatives should work together for maximum effect.
The full text of the report of this Commission is contained in the section of this report that contains all the other reports from the Commissions.
These are some of the key questions posed during the presentation and discussion of the Commission reports:
As our delegates were assembled at the Conference, solidarity messages of support were pouring in, expressing full confidence in the ANC to fulfil its historic mission of leading the oppressed masses of our country to final victory. The report underlined that this growing capacity of the ANC to defeat the forces of oppression and exploitation frightens the enemy and drives him to desperate acts of trying to destroy our ranks. This is done with the fullest and active co-operation of the regime's imperialist allies.
One of the main methods of destabilising our ranks was to infiltrate as many specially trained agents into our midst as possible. For playing this treacherous role these agents are promised and paid fat sums of money as material incentives.
The missions assigned these agents vary. Some of them are: the assassination of leaders of the Movement; poisoning our cadres; infiltration of the highest organs of the ANC; capture of our comrades on return home; gathering of intelligence data on our camps for facilitating their destruction by the enemy.
The report dealt at some length with the methods used by the Pretoria regime to recruit agents from among the oppressed, the type of training they undergo, and how to penetrate and operate in the ranks of the Organisation.
The report also gave some examples of the damage caused by these agents, starting from the 1981 period of 'Operation Clean-up' to the 'Rebellion' we had in the West last year. In these disturbed moments, the Department played a key role in neutralising all these enemy attempts at destroying the ANC.
In the course of carrying out its duties, the report explained, some of the comrades have over-reacted to situations and committed some mistakes in their handling of suspected and confirmed agents. But our task still remains that of defending and supporting the Department, without necessarily condoning its mistakes. It is the political duty of us all, singly and collectively, to defend the Movement, the statement concluded.
Ø The President of the ANC will formally dissolve the current NEC.
Ø The elections will be divided into two parts. During the first stage the delegates will elect the first three main officers of the Movement - the President, the Secretary General and the Treasurer General. During the second stage of the elections, the delegates will elect the rest of the NEC members.
Ø The three Officers, plus two returning Officers, will then form the Electors' College.
The method of elections was Secret Ballot. Each delegate will write down the names of the NEC members he chooses.
Ø Each delegate was given the full list of delegates plus a list of possible candidates proposed by the President.
(NB. The list of the President was not binding). Introduction of NEC members atAt this stage the President introduced the NEC members to the delegates.
OR Tambo (President),
Alfred Nzo (Secretary General),
TT Nkobi (Treasurer General),
Dan Tloome (Deputy Secretary General and Deputy Treasurer General),
John Nkadimeng, Thabo Mbeki,
Johnny Makatini, Jacob Zuma,
Simon Makana, Joe Nhlanhla,
Stephen Dlamini, John Pule Motshabi, Henry Makgothi, Mzwai Piliso,
Andrew Masondo (on a mission to Botswana),
Gertrude Shope (on a mission to Botswana),
Moses Mabhida (abroad for treatment),
Florence Mophosho(absent due to illness) and
Josiah Jele (not standing).
At this stage the Resolutions Committee presented its report. 2. The resolutions were as follows:
In his closing remarks, the President, Comrade OR Tambo, pointed out that the preparations for the Conference have been going on for a period of a year. Our members have worked hard for its success. For this we thank our Regional Preparatory Committees.
He also thanked the National Preparatory Committee, the Technical Staff, the Steering Committee, the Credentials Committee, the Recording Team, and the Resolutions Committee for their good performance.
The President also made special mention of the co-operation and support given to the ANC by the Party and Government of the People's Republic of Zambia in agreeing to our hosting our Conference on Zambian soil and giving us all the facilities we needed. This was done despite the short notice we gave them.
Comrade President announced that the following week there would be a Press Conference on our National Consultative Conference.
Our President concluded by underlining that during Conference our unity had been consolidated and our allies have in turn been strengthened by the success of our meeting. The next stage will then be the implementation of these decisions. That responsibility rests on all of us. Closure: National Anthem and delegates dispersed.
Ø Strengthen the personnel of the SGO as a matter of urgent Priority. In this, special attention should be given to persons responsible for political education in liaison with RPC and other structures Political Education of the organisation.
Ø The post of National Political Commissar be abolished
Ø Creation by NEC of full time Control Commission to ensure Control Commission compliance with decisions of the movement and accountability at 3 members, i.e. 1 NEC (head) all levels and 2 others / * Shall be headed by NEC member plus two others (on basis of Powers and duties to be their experience and authority within the Movement)specified in line with general resolution.
Ø Shall consist of three members headed by one member of NEC Financial Expertise (at least two members shall have suitable expertise in financial matters).
Ø Accountable to NEC through Finance Council. OAG to be accountable independent of the Office of the Treasurer General Independent / * OAG shall act as supervisory financial inspectorate
Ø Codes accepted (with minor and substantial amendments), to come into force immediately, their operation to be reviewed after two years' experience. Urgent: Appoint a Justice Officer (whose first task shall be the +,Justice Officer Investigation of all cases of persons serving sentences or Investigation awaiting trial. Serving sentences Awaiting trial 9 National Executive Committee:
Ø The general feeling was that on the basis of the principle of 'one man, one task', the NEC should consist of 30 members.
Ø The NEC should have the power to co-opt a further five members (whenever the need arises).
Set up a Drafting Committee composed of NEC and PMC to revise and strengthen the Draft Document on Strategy and Tactics (B/2) presented to Conference. The revised version should be circulated amongst all units, branches and regions for thorough discussion and critical appraisal from which can emerge a comprehensive document on Strategy and Tactics. Omissions in the Draft (B/2):
Ø The role of the working class and emergence of the trade unions;
Ø The Bantustans, their changing nature, leadership/elite, programme of action for;
Ø Rural areas outside the Bantustans; the revolutionary alliance.
Set up a machinery to study key nerve centres of every urban area so as to identify priority targets in cases of insurrection, provide knowledge on how and where to deploy forces; study enemy's capacity to respond speedily to a major crisis, etc. PMC/MHQ.
PMC and MHQ. Creation of an underground structure according to the rules of MCW.
Detailed study required on demographic patterns of strategic rural areas and white farming areas. PHQ/MHQ/Research.
On Conference Decisions and Recommendations from Commission Report on Strategy and Tactics
Major decisions Major and Urgent Decisions of the NCC: Political and Ideological Work (and Cadre Policy)
1.1 Mass Organisations:
Our organisers need to be active inside them to expose the reactionary leadership, radicalise the organisations and draw their base into active struggle.
1.2 Trade Unions and the Working Class:
Define their respective roles with regard to the working class and its struggles;
Ø Work out a programme of action based on close co-operation.
1.3 Women: Our training courses in MK should be specially adapted to acknowledge that women start with a disadvantage arising from the society we come from.
Further, we should:
Ø Increasingly deploy women in all areas;
Ø Pay special attention to the women in the rural areas. 1.4 Rural Areas:
1.5 Religious Fronts:
The comrade at Headquarters must be reinforced urgently.
Rural churches must receive special attention as they are, in many cases, the centres of community activity in the rural areas.
1.6 Civic Organisations:
1.7 White Community
1.8 United Democratic Front
2.1 We should adopt the approach that underlay the APC document with the necessary modifications which would take into account subsequent developments. We should further ensure that:
2.2 Cadres must periodically go into the country to acquaint themselves with the situation.
2.3 Increasingly, we must deploy full time organisers in the ANC underground.
2.4 The SADF, Bantustan armies and the police force must be infiltrated as an urgent task.
3.1 The People's War document must be updated in the light of current developments at home.
3.2 It is imperative that our army strikes at enemy personnel. We must take counter-measures which would effectively demonstrate to our people that our army shall no longer allow the ruthless murder of our people at home and in the neighbouring countries to go unpunished. Our actions must also ensure that we shift the focus of attention from within the black ghettoes into the enemy camp.
3.3 Increasingly, our 'officer corps' trained from outside must be deployed to train military combat units inside the country.
3.4 We should disperse the enemy from its present concentration in our urban black communities, as well as create conditions which would facilitate infiltration of our cadres in large numbers into the country.
4.1 Establish a chain of information personnel from inside to outside the country. 4.2 All relevant structures of our Movement must see to it that the DIP is constantly serviced with information to facilitate its work.
4.3 The Movement must immediately look into some of the major obstacles in the timeous production of our 11 journals.
4.4 We need a feasibility study on the latest technology for mobile broadcasting at home.
4.5 We must pay more attention to the development of the democratic press inside the country.
4.6 DIP conference recommendations of 1983 need to be re-examined, adjusted to meet the current situation inside our country and also be implemented.
5.1 We should have combined political/military structures.
5.2 Commission accepted in principle the structures as represented diagrammatically in the 'NEC and PMC Documents B', which provides for regional PMCs. 5.3 The PMC should be retained as a planning and executive body for all home front work.
5.4 The PMC be reduced in number so as to allow it to function as a more decisive and prompt leadership organ.
Ø The Department of Manpower Development (DMD) should continue to seek for and explore possibilities of deploying our highly trained cadres in the independent states.
Ø Deployment should primarily be the concern of the DMD in consultation with other departments which would recommend deployment and redeployment through the DMD.
Ø Special attention should be paid to the deployment and promotion of women at all levels and in all sectors of the Movement.
Ø The drafting and implementation of a syllabus of political education and ensuring its fulfilment.
Ø Appointment of political officers and monitoring their work in every region.
Ø Preparation of material for conducting political classes. (The report outlines broad guidelines for a political syllabus, as well as recommendations to ensure its fulfilment).
As a measure of expenditure control, the Commission recommended that each department be required to submit a yearly budget covering their total expenditure costs, including air travel.
On fundraising, the Commission further recommended that all members of the ANC who are in private employment be taxed, and that the Movement should place ANC personnel in UN agencies in order that we obtain expert information regarding the functioning of these bodies and the channelling of the applications for the Movement for financial aid to the appropriate organs of the United Nations.
The Commission further recommended that due to the long-standing policy of the organisation, calling on the international community to boycott South African goods, the practice of purchasing vehicles from South Africa in Botswana be discontinued in favour of other alternatives.
The Commission also endorsed the TG's report on transport which also suggested a transport pooling system. In this regard the Commission recommended that the Movement invites a specialist in transport management to advise on the appropriate system for our needs; that suitable candidates be identified and sent for training in transport management; that a code of conduct governing the use of transport be drawn up.
Ø There should be a blanket ban on world artists performing in South Africa.
Ø Artists who have refused to perform in South Africa must be encouraged to perform in the Front Line States.
Ø Progressive South African artists should be acceptable abroad. .