About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.

1989

Ø     F W de Klerk takeover from P W Botha.

Ø     Talk of negotiations / release of prisoners.

Ø     State of emergency.

Ø     Realisation of necessity for real change.

Ø     Black on black violence (Inkatha / UDF)

Ø     Last white election on 6 September and campaigns.

Ø     UDF/MDM

Ø     Comrades in the townships.

Ø     Outgoing delegation/s to meet ANC.

Ø     Effect of sanctions.

Ø     Growing strength of Conservative Party.

Ø     Role of the churches.

Ø     Hunger strike by political prisoners.

Ø     International loan repayments.

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. Return to the Nelson Mandela Centre of Memory site.