About this site

This resource is hosted by the Nelson Mandela Foundation, but was compiled and authored by Padraig O’Malley. It is the product of almost two decades of research and includes analyses, chronologies, historical documents, and interviews from the apartheid and post-apartheid eras.



Sent Thursday 2nd February 1989, TC KW

Feb 2

-. Leo doesn't know what's happening re Dick.  He left msg for Rocky to phone him.  Rocky also has TV but hasn't used it.  Leo said this morn "Plse ask Tony to hang on.  Aware of urgency!"

-. Recd msg from Bea at 16h30 her time saying not heard from Leo or Rocky.  When/if I know later I'll TV you.

-. Janet impressed with your report.  Hope to have initial response tomorrow.

-. Sent Ums negatives in book cover to Jogessar address from Holland.  Negs not very good but will be professional next time.  Let us know if OK.

-. New Ums due next week.  Will post copy & negs imed.  John will bring TK disk, or should we post too?

-. Getting your 20K pounds tomorrow (I hope!).  How do you want it?

-. From Ray 31/1 :  "Re:  Kids – auntie going to Cathy's on Wed, Shanti & Lucky'll stay till Elsa returns."

-. If you want TK for other computers I need disk from actual computer, formatted as system disk and containing the keyboard files it uses.  Send with John next time.

-. John confirmed for 28 Feb. I will see him on 24th.

-. You can find 'Secretarial Services' in yellow pages.  Ones I had were linked to Sec Servs at Cathy's so trail led in circle.  Just tell them to keep all your mail and you'll pick it up.  Probably won't ask for your address but in case they do you can invent one overseas.  Have matching legend.


Received Sunday 5th February 1989, TC KW

5.2.    :

1.. Did Leo and Rocky both go to Dick's?  Any news?  Has there been a mishap?

2.. Pls get ready to deposit the 20 thou on Tuesday but wait until we give go ahead.  Same arrangement, a/c no. etc as previous.

3.. Have urgent request for JZ : Alphons/Janet wld have gathered from our reports – we have some contact with JZ's man and this has been of value re our survival but we have ensured that his man minimizes exposure on ground.  At present he and we are taking cover cos we learnt thro him that he has been put under surveillance (he too has shifted home).  But J was due to see his man in Dec, postponed to Jan, then to Feb and now to March.  Meanwhile the outfit is out of funds while it has monthly expenses of R15000.00.  Request from J'z man – pls find way to ensure that J immediately releases at least two months funds (R30000.00) wh can be sorted when they meet.  We presently do not have that to loan to carry him over.  But if complications and you want we give loan, we can arrange.  Await advice important that whatever complications etc this outfit must not disrupt its work due to lack of funds, wh include monthly payments to source.

4.. Any news re Elsa – pls send fondest love.  Auf wiedersehn.

Sent Sunday 5th February 1989,  TC KW

Leo to Tony (Sunday) : "Have checked with Rocky, he's in place.  Do not have full report as to why missed appointment, but not due to any security problem.  We intend to ask him to stay there until next weekend (11 and 12 Feb) to meet your person.  Same arrangements.  Is that OK?  Plse send confirmation.

Chas   Haven't heard from Elsa since last time.  I've sent her all your letters.  Think she just wanted to hear from you.

Ø. We have small radio transmitters for 'pirate radio'.  They work out of car, thus mobile and virtually undetectable.  Range 5km meaning circle 10km across.  Good for township to broadcast movement msgs on FM.  Can you use?

Ø. Hope to have doe in time for Tuesday.  Ish said he'd have it Tuesday.

Ø. Janet'll have response to your report in next day or so.

Ø. Next Ums is ready.  Will post copy during week and negs at weekend.  Should I try posting disk?  Are negs going to be useful?  DROPPED


Sent Tuesday 7th Feb ruary 1989,  TC  FD

Leo to Tony:  "Re pick-up at Dick's :  same arrangements = Times : 11.00 and 16.00.  Meeting place : Nomathatha Shopping Centre, which is on road from Gaberone Sun to Broadhurst.  Your person to wear black t-shirt/sweater and to part in front of shops, buy can of coke and sip, standing at door of driver's side.  Rocky'll wear white T-shirt/sweater and will initiate.  Will ask whether he/she knows Silva.  After affirmative, will introduce himself as Charles.  Your person to use name James/Jenny.  Date :  11 and 12 Feb.  Will await your confirmation.

Chas :  Elsa just phoned (Tues. morn) :  Operation a success.  Still has stitches in eye so can't focus.  Docs say in 3 months will have 100% vision.  Leaving hosp tomorrow and going to sanatorium in Crimea.  Will leave for home on 19th Feb  earliest, 26th latest.  Give me list of shopping to do for kids and self.

Do you want doc on probation?  I'll send in 2 parts.  Do following to join 2 halves : Decipher 1st half and save on disk.  Decipher 2nd half.  Load first and go to editor (F7) with it.  Place cursor at end of first.  Press SHIFT+F8 and at 'Get file:' type in name of 2nd half, preceded by "d:" (eg. D:SECOND).  Second half will be appended to first.

Please inform if you want photo Ums.



Sent Wednesday 8th February 1989,  TC  KW

Eighth :

Leo to Tony :  typing error in last msg re pickup : read "Siva" instead of "Silva".  Sorry.

Chas :  Have funds but still waiting for your signal re deposit.

Janet report follows after cont of below.  You ready….?


1.. The Constitution adopted at our Sixth congress in 1984 lays down under Section III the following rules for membership to our Party:

(a). All South Africans over the age of 18 who accept the programme and policy of the party, undertake to carry its decisions and to work in a Party organization in any place and under any conditions determined by a higher organ, and pay whatever dues are decided upon, are eligible for membership;

(b). The recruiting of a member requires the unanimous decision of a Regional Committee, or, where no such committee exists, of the Central Committee;

(c). The Central Committee shall from time to time lay down rules and regulations which oblige applicants for Party membership (unless specifically exempted) to serve a probationary period under the supervision of a Party structure prior to being accepted as full members;

(d). All decisions by Regional Committees under sub-sections (b) and (c) above (including decisions rejecting applicants) shall be reported to the Central Committee which shall have the power to confirm, reverse or amend such decisions.

2.. Here below are set out further rules and regulations governing probationary membership which have been formulated in terms of Section III (c) above:

(a). All recruits/applicants shall be obliged to serve a probationary period of six months.

(b). Special exemption to rule 2(a) above in any particular case shall require specific and prior approval from the PB.


Sent Thursday 9th February 1989,  TC  KW

Donderdag.  Who or what is "Renee Joseph??"  When do you want me to deposit funds?

Part two..

(c). When a recruit/applicant is accepted for membership by unanimous decision of a Regional Committee the Regional Committee shall determine the tasks that the probationary member shall be required to carry out during his/her term of probation.  Such tasks shall include the following:

(i). A study course covering the basic documents of our Party, the Strategy and Tactics of our National Liberation Movement headed by the ANC, as well as the basics of Marxism-Leninism;

(ii). Acquaint himself/herself with the contents of publications and propaganda material issued by our Party.  In this regard a probationary member shall in the discretion of RC also have access to our Inner Party Bulletin or portions thereof;

(iii). Specific and practical tasks related to the on-going South African struggle.

(d). The Regional Committee shall:

(i). Determine which comrade from our Party structure in the region shall be entrusted with the task of formally informing the recruit/applicant that he/she has been accepted by the Party as a probationer member;

(ii). The said comrade shall serve during the course of the probationary period as our Party contact with the probationer member as well as supervise and ensure that the probationer member carries out the tasks assigned;

(iii). Shall acquaint the probationer member with the rules governing membership and the tasks assigned to him/her for the probationary period, and

(iv). Confirm the probationer member that final membership to our Party shall depend upon his/her performance during the probationary period.

Part 3 follows…..}}

Sent Thursday 9th February 1989,  TC  KW

(e). For the duration of the probationary period the contact/supervisor assigned by the Regional Committee shall act under the guidance and seek advice of the Party unit he/she belongs to on all matters pertaining to the probationer member.

(f). At the end of the probationary period the contact/supervisor's Party unit shall submit a report on the performance and conduct of the probationer member.  Such a report shall include the unit's recommendations as to whether the Regional Committee should confirm full membership, extend the probationary period or refuse to confirm full membership.

(g). On the basis of this report as well any other information the Regional Committee, using the unanimity rule, shall decide whether to admit or not admit the probationer member to full membership, or extend his/her probationary period.  In the latter case final decision regarding full membership shall be made at the end of the extended probationary period.

(h). The Regional Committee shall ensure that its decision in terms of  2(g) above is communicated to the recruit/applicant and take the necessary measures to integrate the member into a unit if his/her full membership has been agreed upon.

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _


-. Long Janet report follows.

-. Leo is visiting Cathy – in case you want to say hi!

-. Let us know if photos OK

-. OUT


Received Friday 10th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  (3)

1.. Await Janet report.

2.. Suggest when you have series to send we adopt following:

(a). Normally we collect, go back to base 30 minutes away, decode, then confirm via TV and await advice from you for next message.

(b). Due to pressure (collection of fie mess would take us two days!) we suggest change.  If you have series, prepare all in readiness for feeding one after the other.  We will collect and immediately inform on TV for you to quickly feed next and indicate promptly.

(c). We will thus collect all mess and proceed to base to decode.  We will then inform you which we have read.

3.. Our men re- Dicks has left.  Please keep us advised.  Regards to Janet from Masha.  Finito.

Sent Friday 10th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  (7)


By lucky coincidence both Alphons and Janet were here when your report arrived.  We discussed aspects of it and I hasten to give quick responses to these.  Firstly we were both quite awe-struck by your fertility.  You both seem, what the Vietnamese used to call female roots, with the capacity to reproduce!

1.. Your expanded info re Chief MM will be tabled at the right levels.  Also your details re B. Ngcuka.

2.. Note your report on D mission to Rachel.  The whole question of division of labour between the different structures engaged in the same area is beginning to loom.  There are more than half dozen outfits theoretically involved in internal building (IPC, JO, SACTU, NAT, MK, President's Project, Rachel &, very theoretically, youth, women etc).  How to prevent duplication, achieve co-ordination and, at the same time, maintain the absolutely necessary security wall around Vula?  D was right not to identify you to Rachel.  But for how long will this be possible?  The whole question has already come up at IPC and it's been raised for a later discussion at NWC and tripartite levels. When we return to base we intend trying to work out a formula before the issue is discussed on these committees.  Any all-round reflections from you would of course be valuable.  I privately broached the matter with RK (he's been co-opted onto JO Internal Coord Cttee.  Your identities do not feature and we report everything as coming from Masha).  I informed him that Masha had created a  RPC in Zola's and asked whether he thought that it should now be put under the wing of the IPC.  He thought not.  He's impressed with Masha's achievement and correctly feels that RPC's chances of survival would be drastically reduced if the details were to become the property of the whole Lusaka collective.  But in general your very success poses new and, at the same time, very positive problems – problems of progress!

We also noted the more positive approach by Rachel to the security considerations connected with the building of his collective.  We also approve the way you're handling D.

Re progress at Zola's.  Congrats at speed of distribution of Jan 8 Stmt.  We're both impressed and inspired by the progress made and the meticulous care you're investing in the process of building the structures.  Jack's example and your other comments do give us a feel of the complexities and the context in which you're working.  Insofar as is necessary we fully endorse your personal choices the other steps you've taken.  We don't need the real names you mention in .7.  These are a few aspects (which we're sure you're taking into account) which we, nevertheless, wish to emphasize:

Part 2 next//

Sent  Friday 10th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  (8)


(a). In selecting personnel for the RPCs we presume you're reserving a pool for future involvement at Provincial and National leadership levels.

(b). The existence of effective u/g structures at Zola's is likely to be noticed if there 's a blast of activity (mil and prop) in the area with little happening elsewhere.  There's a tactical need to give the appearance of organizational spread.  Since it may take time to achieve this in sufficient measure, it may be an idea for Zola's to ensure that some of its activity seems to emanate from other regions (e.g. posting from Bloemfontein etc.).

(c). We're also sure that you've taken into account protective measures for the decentralized printing equipment in the townships. A police raid (perhaps routine) should not uncover equipment.  Between sessions the equipment should perhaps be in a DLB.

(d). We wonder whether it is wise that both Isabella and Tony are known to the RPC.  Or are we mistaken in our impression?

4.. Suggestion for Natal ANC organ is IKWEZI.  We presume it will focus on Natal and should, therefore, be closely linked with Zulu.

5.. On HG's instruction Linus sought directions from Janet on his internal role.  Linus also informed Janet that he was linked with Masha in a studies programme.  Janet then advised Linus that he should accept all guidance from Masha who'll keep Janet informed.  I however suspect that he's linked also with JZ's outfit.  Will check this out on my return.  Also will raise money requirements for JZ's man in your recent comm..

6,. Will certainly check out also on Cde Refiloe as a possible transfer to you.

7.. In principle we must be guided by you in relation to the need for the type of building you need for effective protection.  But please give an estimate of the costs so that we can establish whether the finances are or will be available.  Little-John is unfortunately not available at the moment.

8.. Please ask D to inform Dalla and Rachel that Alphons has checked with Masha and that it is not true that Masha has been to CT in the past year.

9.. Tony's visit to Rachel requires a 95% security shield otherwise it should not be risked.  In regard to Masha we think that if he has security reservations he shouldn't be pressured.  In any case we shouldn't put Tony and Masha in the same basket.

SECTION 3 follows

Sent Friday 10th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  (9)

Sect. three and last

10.. Neither of us have any in info on the contents of Krish Naidoo's report about the alleged US initiative.  But we'll check.

11.. Thanks for info under 11.7 plus of course all the other items of info which we will seep through to the various levels.

12.. I attach a report of our discussions with Valli and Morobe.  A final discussion was scheduled for 7th Feb in Harare which Janet was unable to attend.  But their ideas have been accepted in principle, i.e. a process of exchanges with like-minded people culminating in a broader get-together at which there will be individual and not organizational participation.  We're supposed to draw up a list of approximately 15 leading activists who should consult with one another (internally) to produce a more concrete set of proposals for the follow-up.  It must be looked upon as an ANC-guided initiative.  I'm sure that you'll get a fuller report from M & V.

13.. Tell Isabella that I've passed her 2 articles to AC and Schaba respectively .  I don't know whether she's getting older or I'm getting younger but I'm in general sympathy with the main thrust of the articles!

14.. I will try to send you news of Elsa when I return to base.

15.. Re Janet matters:

a.. Thanks for unit comments on 1st 4 parts.  It looks like we still have to do a bit of homework.

b.. Your report on work at Zola's and Sello's will be placed before the collective and you'll be sent the necessary responses.  But to me your report is exciting and your work in this area is predictably most effective!!

c.. Ditto all the items you raise in connection with the 7th Congress.  We'll respond soon (i.e. within 1 week).

d.. We'll send you a number of letterheads.  Please write the necessary requests for messages in my name.  I'll also enclose the facsimile of my  signature.  An old lag like Tony can sure do a forging job!  By the way, Tony is also asked to send messages on our behalf to the relevant congresses (COSATU etc).  We leave it to you to take the initiative.

More later…

END of JANET but Valli and Morobe follows:


Page 560, Reference 13:

[] maharaj/ vula comms/1989/ [] February 10 should read:

[] maharaj/ vula comms/1989/ [] February 11


Sent Saturday 11th February 1989,  TC  FD


1.. Introduction

1.1. Meeting was convened to put flesh to discussion M and V held with the NWC.  Mandated to look into the following questions:

Ø. Future of UDF

Ø. Process of leadership formation on the basis of consultation started within the country

Ø. Anti-apartheid Coalition and Conference

1.2. Because of time factor, only issued 1 and 2 were dealt with.

2.. Elaborating on two issues, M and V emphasized the following:

2.1. MDM has survived and grown in terms of membership and capacity to mobilise.  The people have scored many victories in recent past, and it is clear that the regime has no way out.  Yet the MDM is unable to take full advantage of the favourable situation and move forward.

2.2. There is a serious crisis of leadership within the MDM as a whole:  current leadership not capable of working out strategic direction:  no forum for strategizing; lack of cohesiveness; only responding to crises, there is urgent need to find answers to the fundamental question of lifting MDM from state of unconscious existence.

2.3. The UDF in particular is plagued by many weaknesses:

Ø. NEC and Head Office are not functioning properly and not giving leadership;  their approach is parochial, the lack a global approach.

Ø. Reality is that UDT splendidly gave expression to mass mobilization then but it is not in a position to do so now.  It exists merely as a sector of the MDM rather than the MDM itself.  This is amplified by the fact that, eg the Churches are today taking up the cudgels;  UDF/COSATU relations have improved though there are many  weaknesses; and generally state of severe repression.

Ø. Also problem of disunity within UDF and MDM;  personality differences; leaders simply not meeting; inability to take advantage of strength in other sectors.

END part one


Received Sunday 12th February 1989,  TC  FD


Ein :. Yes very interested in radios you spoke of.  Will John bring some? With

. instruction manuals etc?

2.. How far are we with propaganda booklet?

3.. Still trying to negotiate rates re money.   Previous guy trying to knock rate down.  Will advise asap.

4.. Did Rocky make contact.  In future shld have way to keep in touch via you when such transactions in progress.

5.. Need final disc. Notes of Harare meet with M & V asap.

6.. The Dec issue of Umseb in film form has arrived.  Thanks.  Can get the film you sent locally.

7.. The reason why we are suggesting amended routine when series being sent is that under old rules it takes us an hour at least to go from base, collect, return, check and advise you.  This poses time and security probs.  So far we have located only three sites with card phones – all far from where we stay.  Last  msgs this morning worked fine.  New approach means two adjustments:

(a). in  TV msgs you should indicate how many in series so that we don't hang around thinking there is still another to come.

(b). You keep all until you receive final acknowledgement from us when we have read msgs.  Then we can spread collection between the 3 sites.  Note further max length we can collect via cardphones is one and half minutes.  The last msg today was just about the max (allowing a safety margin).  The cards only handle R10 and we find that on public phones the cheap nite rates don't seem to apply.

8.. Hope you're making progress on switch to faster baud rate.

9.. How did you find John?  Expect to have much for him to collect.  Best regards.


Received Monday 13th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  ( )

Feb 13th :

1.. Re J's outfit here – confirmed that J will meet cde from his outfit in Harare on

28th inst.  In this regard we understand meeting is for two purposes:

(a). Report etc re J's dept;

(b). Cos until now the outfit here has been both INT plus pol. u/g, at this meeting J wants to transfer the pol activists of the structure to IPC structures.  Now, with regard to latter point can you find way to head this off as transfers already effected/being effected into the RPC structures?  We can ensure that Head of unit here can then say to person going to meet J that this aspect has been attended to (eg by Masha).  Given that RK is head of u/g this could be headed off without eyebrows being raised as to what is happening on the ground.

2.. Still on this outfit, I think I advised you that the Head here had to move etc.  This of course has been effected quietly and without the enemy smelling what happened and why.  However, the cde who keeps contact with J via Ldn via phone spoke to AP the other day re arrangements for meeting and AP told him that he (AP) had heard that the Head was in trouble!  Of course the contact man did not know what AP was talking about.  Nonetheless after the call he became interested how AP could have heard things without his having informed AP etc about it!  Has this arisen 'cos of info we sent being passed to AP?  How do we avoid this in order to protect our line, save complications for J's man and protect Vula?  This applies to other matters too eg report re Bulelani.  All this in context that both for Vula and structures etc here cooperation on ground with Head of J's outfit here is very crucial (and beneficial both ways!)

3.. Reminder – our request of 1st Nov re Nevo debrief and those implicated on ground wh you passed on for attention :  when do we get response on this and other security matters we raised?  Pls respond re 1, 2, and 3 above asap.

4.. With some prodding and help by us we have moved this outfit to recruit another source, independent of first one, and this past Sat. evening this operation was effected.  J's outfit now well on way to acquiring a 2nd source!  Keep this to yourself – let J hear from his outfit directly.  (NB for Janet :  with John shall send appraisal of leaks re JO via Ldn.  Treat sensitively).  Cheers

Received Monday 13th February 1989,  TD  FD  A1  ( )

2 :  Feb 13th :  Urgent :  Winnie thing now breaking open.  Stompie body found etc etc. Learnt last night that Crisis Cttee at end of tether.  Plans for big meeting on Wed. evening of community orgs, t/us and churches to announce to press on Thurs:

(a). disowning Winnie etc;

(b). in process use affidavits etc.  Hope to see SM (Kaiser) this evening to get first hand report.  Situation explosive.  We can't avoid getting involved in order to urge that political disowning be done in such way that we don't find ourselves linked with SAP and as State witnesses; that emphasis be on divisive/disruptive role of Club (and Winnie by implication) and firmly link this to enemy infiltration and provocateurs in club etc so that firm finger is pointed at regime.  Believe FC has arrangements to speak to Alphons on Wed night after above meeting.  Second, we are urging line that whatever is decided on Wed should not be acted upon publicly until Madiba and Alphons briefed fully, their observations taken into account (maybe modifying meetings decisions) before acting publicly.  After seeing Kaiser tonight, we will have to decide firmly to disband due to Winnie's refusal to cooperate + her public statements attacking churches.  Beside Stompies death now very likely that death of Asvat will find links with FC!  Most aspects already too public to contain.  How do we contain damage to struggle?  Your views wld be appreciated.  Regards

Sent  Monday 13th February 1989,  TC  FD  A1  (13)

No. 1 of 2

Chas :  Agree on need for more efficient pickup method.  Problem remains how to coordinate.  After I've RM-ed you it may be several hours before you pick up, by which time I may be away from base.  I suggest new TB codes:  'RM' = 1 msg; 'Dr.' somebody = 2 msgs;  'Mrs.' Somebody = 3 msgs; 'PU' = (Tony has) picked up msg but not yet F5-ed (ie, put next msg on AM).  When you rec 'RM', pick up any time;  when you receive 'Dr' or 'Mrs' then TV me and say when you'll do pickup.  I'll try to be at base.  When you 'PU' TV I'll put next on.  If you receive no 'Dr' or 'Mrs' within 10 mins = I'm not there.  'MR' after F5-ing all msgs = same as before.  OK?

2.. Radio Tx for townships supposed to be ready end March.  Have one now but keeping for testing.

3.. Propaganda booklet will come with John.  More on other subjects in prep.

4.. Don't know yet if Rocky made contact.  We have special TV for such purpose.  Rocky faces severe disciplining.  Apparently missed flight last week because drunk.  Left TV no and codes in car in Vz so couldn't make contact.

5.. Posting book with Janet's signature, also thick greetings card with Ums today, both to Dr's addresses you gave.  Photo Ums follows in book during week.  Indicate whether photos you've received are OK.

6.. Difficult to incr baud rate using tapes.  Sending with John special modem for TS.  Will allow you to s/r msgs with Chitchat as we used to do from Raymonds but at 1200 baud.  Later we'll subscribe to SA version of TG where you'll be able to deposit msgs for us to pick up.  Tests with my TS have proved it works.

Janet   Further to my reply of last week I add following after P.B. discussion:

1.. We agree that it would be too risky for Tony to attend Congress.

2.. We're sure Isabella would both benefit Congress and benefit from it.  But on balance we're against her participation.  In order to protect her legend she'd not be able to make an input at Congress relating to her experiences.  Your progress is too encouraging to risk her journey and possible exposure to approx. 50 participants.  The question of a debriefing session with Alphons and Janet should be considered separately from Congress.  We should negotiate this possibility.  Re HG:  it would be wonderful to have him but please remember that it's an enormous long journey.

Part 2 follows

Part 2 of two :

3.. We accept your proposal that :

(a). 2 delegates be sent from Zola's and Sello's.  We also consider that you're best person to judge order of priority in selection.  We therefore endorse your choice of first two in each case.

(b). Will it be possible to get some video-recorded message especially from someone like HG?

(c). We await your further comments on draft.  Perhaps it may be possible to receive comments from Rachel as well.

4.. Re Roger note to Janet :  Roger asked for my views re handling of constitutional guidelines at NUM Congress and also my views on Scargill initiative.  Re latter we agree with Roger that it's wholly impractical.  Re guidelines we think they should come before NUM congress for discussion leading to any additional proposals or amendments.  We're not at this stage expecting any adoption of guidelines a la Freedom Charter.  The ANC's engaged in a consultative process with whole MDM on this question.  Based on inputs it'll then once again consider contents of guidelines.

5.. In so far as is necessary we endorse your sub s. scales.

6.. We're attending to disturbing report about non-arrival of Ums and AC by post.  Cathy outfit's been given hammering for lack of attention and creativity in posting style and methods.

7.. I share some of your reflections on Sam's narrow style of work.  I too suspect a great deal of rigidity.  We'll certainly pay some attention to this question.

8.. In general we share your apprehensions about security connected with Congress but we believe risk is worth taking.  The first time participation of members on the ground (either from us or ANC) at such an Indaba will not only be an inspiration but it'll also help to tilt balance away from increasingly unrewarding external splashing about.

9.. Once again cdes, let me express my sense of admiration for your astonishing achievements.  I say this with some emotion, knowing what some of you've sacrificed re your nearest and dearest.  I feel honoured to be associated with the project.

10.. We've received letters from home to AC office expressing support for AC and Ums.  We've of course no way of assessing genuineness of writers but for what it's worth here are names:

(a). Hendrik Mamabolo,  893 Moepi Street, Vosloorus, Bolksburg;

(b). Michael Robert Bogogolela, 417 Keiskama St, Munsieville;

(c). Errol April, P O Box 13288, Mowbray, CT;

(d). S Majola, 45 Gobinca St, Ikwezi Township, Umtata, Transkei}}OUT


Received Tuesday 14th February 1989,  TC  FD  A2 (1)

We expect report what happened at Dicks which led to our man not being met and firm assurance that nothing of the sort happens again.  There is a limited pool of people we can use for this sort of work, and each can only undertake one such trip in a while.  It is harmful, therefore for any of our arrangements to fail in the manner that the first app. did.  Secondly, in the last trip where contact was made, there were disturbing reports from our man:  Firstly, the identification signals provided to us were not adhered to.  Our man nearly did not make contact because he was wearing a black t-shirt as agreed but the man who was expecting him was looking for a man in white.  Secondly, according to the arrangements your man was supposed to initiate contact but our man was told that he was expected to make the approach.  Thirdly, your man was supposed to introduce himself as Charles and our man as James.  The man who made contact after the initial confusion neither knew of a Charles or a James.  Our man was thus put in a difficult situation of judging the authenticity of the contact save the question asked of him about Siva.  Last, we had warned earlier about the temptation to overload and thus interfere with the original position of the tank.  It happened again.  We know that the capacity of our depot is not great but our primary consideration is safety.  It is unacceptable that this safety should be risked for one extra unneeded rifle.  Which brings me to the last point.  Earlier we provided a priority list which should have been followed for this collection.  Rifles and pistols are the last things we need.  Even common sense should tell us that.  But they were the only things sent.  Where are the instruction notes on various subjects that we asked for?  These are essential for the beginning, not rifles!  What about explosives and detonators?   Please put your act together.  We should target for another collection in March.  Please keep us advised.

Sent Tuesday 14th February 1989,  TC  KW

Janet to Tony :

1.. We agree that person going to meet J should say that Masha is handling transfers.  Alphons'll inform J that he himself is supervising Masha's RPC initiatives.  Tony has also prepared RK accordingly.

2.. Loose talk by AP on telephone :  We're not aware of any info you passed on to us having reached AP from any of our channels.  Alphons'll make discreet enquiries from J outfit.  He'll also raise question of cooperation on the ground between latter and Masha.

3.. Alphons apologises for delay in following up Nevo matter you raise.  He'll do so when he returns from current mission.

4.. Could you indicate who may be involved in J.O leaks even before John brings us full report.  Do we have to be put on our immediate guard in relation to any cadre?

5.. Winnie :  Alphons spoke to F.C last night (Monday).  He advised:

i.. Everything should be done to remove the issue from one of strife within the Soweto community.  We agree with what you say about pointing a finger at regime.

ii.. The issue should be handled in a way which will bring national forces (from the MDM generally) to bear on Winnie.

iii.. The Soweto community should be made to feel the positive approach of linking the issue with the larger context of the interests of the whole national struggle.  All action should be related to national interest and should be so motivated.  This implies broadening the base of the crisis cttee.

iv.. We fully agree with your view on the Football club.  Alphons has more than once conveyed to Winnie the need to disband it.  He has repeated this in the last few days to F.C and Winnie.

v.. The working cttee is considering the drafting of a statement to be issued when the thing really breaks – as it might well so very quickly.

vi.. We agree that, if possible, Alphons and Madiba should be given the opportunity of making an input after Wednesday meeting.

Janet to Isabella :  We'll investigate your disturbing report at the earliest opp.  We'd already received info on the unacceptable approach by Rocky to his work.  Leo and Janet discussed this in Cathy's, we've decided that when Leo returns (end month) we'll confront Rocky on the matters you raise and other related questions.  Subject to what he has to say, Janet is of the view that we must immediately find a replacement.  Janet's already made a preliminary report to Alphons.  We apologise for this unacceptable conduct and will try to ensure that it doesn't occur again.


Received Wednesday 15th February 1989,  TC  FD  A2(2)

17.2 :  For Alphons-Janet:

1.. re NUM meeting with us – Roger advises that most of NUM exec will be attending MIF congress being held in Harare on 8th – 10th March. They ??????????????o back on 11th because the 16 regional congresses of NUM will be reporting back on 12th as part of process towards NUM congress in April.  They will therefore like to have meeting with us take place in Harare on 5-6-7 March if this date suits us.  Please advise so that they can ensure that they arrive on time.  If dates not suitable then we shall have to look at some future dates.

2.. We hope to send some appraisal of campaigns and problems re MDM with John/Meanwhile a meeting between you and NUM at this stage could be useful as part of process to revitalize MDM, ensure we share the same wavelength re current state of affairs and way forward, as well as ensure resolutions at NUM congress pave the way for united positions in accord with our appraisal to emerge at Cosatu Congress in July.  Hence urgent that you give us some input before 19th March re NUM congress, and if your meeting is on with NUM as proposed above that such an input is also made directly by you at the NUM meeting in Harare.

3.. IDASA has approached Roger to serve on its Board.  Xundu and Bey are urging him to accept.  Before NUM decides Roger would appreciate your views.

4.. Van Zyl S wants Roger to join him on a visit to USSR for 10 days around March-April.  What do you think?  Roger can easily dodge trip because it is close to NUM congress.

5.. For Janet :

(a). Vic Allen of British Party (known to Janet) has been here for the past 10 days with a view to writing a book on the mining industry and growth of NUM.  NUM is thinking of giving him the go ahead.  W


Received Saturday 18th February 1989,  TC  FD  (8)

18th Feb :  Ein :  Recd your msg on TV.  Regret do not have a copy of msg we sent.  Assume you have points 1-four wh were in the msg.  NB point 5 had three sub sections viz a b c.  Point five was for the attention of Janet and contained the ff:

(a). Vic Allen, member of British CP and known to Janet has been here for the past 10 days and is being considered by NUM to write on the mining industry and growth of NUM.  Can you advise re his reliability and suitability.

(b). Similar advice needed re Fiona Lambasteer, a barrister, member of British CP and AAM, who wants to work with the t/u here for a year and NUM is considering proposal.

(c). Can O ensure that we receive some input re proposals for NUM congress.

Two :. Tony had advised you in msg on Monday that dQZ*?onQ%?d be taken that :!Q?t whether he should proceed to Sello the next day.  In fact Tony then left on Tuesday and arranged for Isabella to advise you and maintain contact via A2.  I plan to leave for Zola's tomorrow.  If you have any sgs tc it wld be handy if we cld attend to as many as possible tonight as convenience of TS really comes into its own when we have to handle a series.  Fu7kf? Part I shall try to prepare some reports if I can get my creaking bones to work and get the msgs to you tonite – it's a question of overcoming tiredness.  Schluss


Received Monday 20th February 1989,  TC  KW

20th Feb :  To Ken :  What's happening re comms?

(1). On Monday, before leaving for Sello Tony advised you of possible move.

(2). On Thurs Isabella sent msg, inter alia, stating Tony was at Sellos.

(3). On Fri Tony sent msg from Sello, got no acknowledgement, enquired twice via TV, when you responded to say you had not been advised Tony was at Sellos.

(4). Tried to send two msgs from Sello wh you had trouble reading.  Can't be fault of TS 'cos Tony sent from old spot.

(5). On return to Zola, Isabella states has had probs getting acknow. From you re handing over money.  Still does not have info that you have located the person to whom we wish to pass funds, so that we shall know when to trigger you to hand over funds.  Pls advise progress on this.

(6). Today Tony attempted to collect msg you advised us of via TV yesterday.  First time, found on deciphering that msg cut off.  Second time, found AM come on with plain noise and then proceed to msg without intro signal.  Third time, could only hear noise on AM and no signal!  Then advised you via TV at approx. 11.30 and still await word from you (it is now 1.50pm).

(7). We still await response to our report re last collection at Dicks.

(8). For Janet:  Pls let us have precise date and duration of Congress to enable us to arrange for those traveling from here.  This is urgent as it seems that Winnie crisis may require Tony to get back to Sello within day or two.  Finally, pls respond urgently so that we can restore comms.  There is much to send and we expect much from your end eg we don't have text of  Lsk statement on Winnie.  Cheers.


Sent Tuesday 21st February 1989,  TC  KW

Tues :

Janet to Tony (Sun) :

a}. Will discuss your NUM msg with Alphons tomorrow.  Dates look dicey at moment.  Alphons is leading a delegation of which I'm a member to Su which leaves on 5th March.  When I return on 12th I'll have to be virtually full time on Congress prep., which would make it difficult for me to travel until approx. 20 April.  Either I miss out on this one or Roger and some colleagues should try to come to Raymond between 15-20 March.  Will communicate further if necessary after discussion with Alphons.

b}. Will also consult Alphons about Idasa board and joint visit to USSR.

c}. Re Vic + Fiona :  reply will have to await enquiries from Cathy.

d}. We've decided not to have the usual political report at our Congress.  The main item will be the new program which contains a basis for discussion on longer term perspectives.  I however feel that it's necessary for the Congress to issue a relatively short and inspiring call to the people, and in particular the workers, from G.O.  You are therefore requested to prepare a draft which should not be more than +/- 2500 words, which you could send with John.  If it's done by you people it'll for a change have a smell of the earth.  I hope you can fit this in.  Anyway try your best.

Chas :  Sorry probs with comms.  Been away from base very much, often out of range of bleep and in situations where unable to make calls.  Leo going to find someone to help me.

-. No confirmation given that Tony had gone to Sello's (I have all old msgs), only that he might go.  Later is was mentioned he was away but not stated he'd gone to Sello.  Thus I was sending confirmation of Tony msgs to Zola and confusing Isb.

-. Isb's msg re money address asked for confirmation of address, not to contact person.  I replied immed on TV but as both Tony's and Isb's msgs were on TV Isb probably thought there was not reply, then it got wiped.  Other Isb msgs were so cryptic I was confused exactly what was wanted.

-. Probs re TS I don't know, msgs just sounded very wobbly to the ear.  Poss flat batteries or too far from Hillbrow Tower.

-. Sent Janet report to Tony and Isb on Tues re Dick.  Had nothing more since.

-. AM on Monday:  could find no prob.  Picked up msg myself from callbox and was OK.

-. Tried money man yesterday but not available.  Will try again today.


Sent Tuesday 21st February 1989,  TC  KW

Janet to Tony (Tues) :

(1). We responded on same day about your report re Dick.  Still awaiting Rocky's return.

(2). Your delegates should try and arrive at Cathy not later than April second.  The event begins on April 7th and will last for five days.  This means return to Cathy by approx 14th April.  All ticket money SA-Cathy return will be reimbursed immediately.  Plse lay out the money.  Balance of ticket will be provided.  A.P acting with Charles till make all contact arrangements thru you.  When you know passport name and exact date of arrival in Cathy, plse inform Charles.  In case you've not been informed, training facilities will be available for any length of time at venue after the congress.  For your knowledge only, the Congress is at the place where we were photographed together with the little brother.  An progress with msgs and video msgs for Congress?

(3). Your two letters for "Elsa arrived today (I sent them again by TC as copies I sent to Moscow and Lusaka never arrived – Chas.}and I'll deliver them this evening.  Elsa returned yesterday full of beans.  The kids are wonderful.  She's looking great.  Everything seems to have been successful.  It was difficult to convey to you every detail of the process connected with Elsa because of uncertainty about exact results.  I can now say with all honesty that the prognosis seems to be extremely positive.  You undoubtedly have her in one piece.  Love to you all.

Fatman has been astonishing.  I suggest you send a letter to him which I'll deliver when I seem him on Alphons' mission on March 6th.


As I said in TV I contacted person re money but he did not know about the particular transaction.  He said that he had to deal with such maters from time to time.  He gave me address where to deposit it.  Wot next??

Received Tuesday 21st February 1989,  TC  FD  A1 (9)


(1). Just recd request from Sello's.  they recd reqst presumably via Howards that a list of cdes come to Raymond urgently.  Seems msg is from Alphons.  In the msg recd the list of names not clear, but it seems to include Frank C and Valli.  They asked Tony to get clarity re list of names etc.  It appears visit is re Winnie.  Pls clarify.

(2). We owe you report re Winnie, as you will recall that we found we had to become involved.  However, since Lska statement (of wh we still don't have full text) we found ourselves working to get adjustment from MDM.  To this end we have had some discussions here and yesterday agreed that George and Tony wld go the Sello to see Frank Ch etc and we are waiting to get word re wh day wld be suitable for him.  Important that cdes here working out practicalities and direction of adjustment.  This is achievable tho Tony failed due to time factor (Tony only reached Sellos as meeting was taking place).  Even more important is that you keep constant pressure to ensure that Winnie makes no statements etc, clears out F.Club and we resuscitate Crisit Cttee to speak on behalf of family (in conjunction with MDM and us).  Will be sending you report with John on aspects of this episode etc.  Meanwhile will forward list when you supply it.  Tony also on standby to go to Sello re above ASA FC available, as well as re John.  Past weeks hectic running may affect reports wh we were supposed to send with John, but we will see what we can do, and possibly supplement by sending special courier to Raymond around mid-March.  If Tony leaves urgently for Sello, Isabella will be in touch from Zola.  Best regards PS Ken : will advise ASAP re funds ends


Received Wednesday 22nd February 1989,  TC  KW


(1). Ken, we don't understand re funds transfer.  Isabella provided you with a/c no and bank name and a/c name and asked you to locate the bank or its branch in London so that when we signal you wld be able to deposit the money into that a/c.  We await confirmation that you have located the bank.  Further she provided name and add of a person whom you could contact if you ran into probs re above – you have located person and say this person gave you address where you could leave the funds.  Is this a bank a/c or a person?  'Cos we wld have no proof that we gave funds if we do not deposit into an a/c and instead give to a person.  Pls advise if you have located bank in London urgently.  Isabella sent you details of this twice.

(2). Pls advise A&J – we await report re agreement etc reached with M&V in Harare.  We wld have wished you wld not have taken active steps sans involving us in consultations before deciding.  To give small illustration of complications, M&V have been to Zola and know how to find us but have not deigned to give us a briefing, nor have they to anyone we have come across – instead, even at mass level eg last week Fri's small get together V played unconstructive role, while M stayed away in CT and did not attend.  Anyway we planned to give you our observations via John.  Further we had ensured that SM gave A a personal briefing re probs around M&V as he saw it – we refrained from givig our observations in case you misread us.  We wld hope you wld not proceed hastily and take our report into a/c, wh we hope to do soon.  Tony now suspects the msg he sent yesterday re query from Sello may be in connection with this aspect?  Is he right?  More

Received Wednesday 22nd February 1989,  TC  KW

Wed :  Dearest Gemma,  welcome back to the family – despite the distance I am with you in every way.  I envy you and the kids and dearly wish I cld also be with you all.  Janet tells me you have returned full of beans and the kids are wonderful.  I can imagine how your presence would have created a globe of warmth around you three.  Even more reassuring is her report that we have you back on the way to a full mend.  We may tread under a lucky star but it seems also that we are destined to live with shocks that frighten the hell out of us.  Pls send me a photo of you and kids since your return.  And do not forget I am yearning to hear news directly from you.  Trust that despite the circumstances, you found your stay with big S pleasant.  Tell Janet I shall send a note of thanks etc to him.  Pls give best regards to those you can.  What can I say in such a short note about myself?  Of course, we live under tremendous pressure – fortunately we have a clear and enriched perception of where Vula is heading – and that gives us the will to move our (no, my) tired bones and overcome frustrations (as well as exasperation at times).  Despite these pressures, I am determined to keep up with the journal – tho time is at such a premium.  Touch wood that I shall be able to write another installment in time for John.  Right now my biggest yearning is to gather you and the kids tightly in my arms and never let you go.  Deepest love always and always from your Tony.


Sent Saturday 25th February 1989,  TC  KW

Janet to Tony 23rd:

a.. We'll now ensure you get all statements immed.  (Chas :  Having all AC telexes sent direct to my TG telex so can send you whatever you want immed).

b.. Have only heard today that 2 delegations arriving this weekend.  One is from COSATU which includes Jay and SM.  Apparently to discuss Pmbg probs.  But obviously other issues'll be discussed, including Winnie.  2nd delegation supposed to include Morobe + Frank + other UDT leaders, coming to discuss Winnie crisis.  The rest is unclear to me.  I've been unable to check Alphons about msg which you say included suggested list of names of delegation.  The working cttee meets Fri afternoon to discuss both delegations.  As soon as meeting's over I'll try to send you the info.  At the moment I'm slightly in the dark.

c.. Two weeks ago you should have received a long report on our discussions with M&V which I asked Charles to forward.  The msg it contained in Para 12 together with the annexure, dated 10/2, a week before Harare meeting with M&V.  When A & J met M&V early in Feb we instructed them to give you a full report of our discussions.  It's surprising that no report was made to you and if M comes this weekend we'll take it up.  Unfortunately I've no information about SM briefing to Alphons re problems around M&V.  I'll check.  We'll try not to proceed hastily without taking your report into account.

d.. Alphons is in constant contact with Winnie, emphasizing the matters you mention re statements, football club etc.  We'll raise with Alphons the question of resuscitating Crisis Ctee to speak on behalf of family etc.

e.. A & J advise Roger not to join the Idasa structure and not to accompany v Zyl to SU.  He should find a way of opting out of too close a co-option by this crowd.

f.. Alphons asks that you pass on report on discussion with M&V to Rachel.

g.. Further to your report re storing equipment in Para 9.8 of the last report that came with John, Alphons is apprehensive about the impression that it is intended to have large storage places.  He prefers greater decentralization.  He also asks for a report on plans you may be elaborating in relation to military activity.

h.. We note your remarks that with the passing of time the risk of enemy closing in becomes greater.  We presume that you're working out fall-back arrangements, including new disguises etc.

-   John says OK to bring radios out, but ask him again//

Sent Saturday 25th February 1989,  TC  KW

No. 2 of Sat :

Janet to Tony:

I.. Confirm that the two delegations' be arriving this Sunday and will be met by the working ctee.

II.. The basic ANC approach is contained in the statement.

III.. It's clear that many activists have been shocked by sharpness of mdm STATEMENT.  Above all we must avoid the danger of differences erupting into an internecine conflict.  Already there are signs that situation could get out of hand, particularly in Soweto with conflict between pro and anti Winnie groups.  It would be a disaster if Nelson were released to a divided struggle.  This possibility is no doubt in the minds of the enemy.  Therefore everything possible must be done to diffuse this possibility even if some compromises have to be sought.  We're of the view that Winnie must go further than she's done in recognizing some of her mistakes connected with the football club.  This would assist the MDM to retreat from the sharpness of its own statement.

IV.. Re Crisis ctee :  we agree that such a group is needed to contain the situation.  It was originally formed among other things to speak on behalf of the Mandela family.  Perhaps it needs recasting and broadening to include some of the existing members.  We'll discuss this possibility, particularly with Frank.  The meeting was organised in telephone discussions between Jele and Morobe and we only received details today.  Even now it's not exactly clear who is coming.

V.. The Cosatu group has come to discuss the Pmbg events.  We've heard that Eunis has advised that the proposed peach offensive in Natal, involving discussions between Cosatu, UDT and Gatsha, should be postponed b ecause of a fear that it will let Gatsha off the hook in relation to present difficulties he's experiencing within Inkhata.  We're wholly opposed  to this approach.  It's not the right time to play politics when so many killings are continuing.  The approach adopted at the December Harare meeting must be pursued with vigor.  Among other things that meeting decided that the youth should be consulted so that they feel part of the process.  This would avoid the earlier hostile reaction from them to the unilateral approach by Archie G last year.  We suspect that the Cosatu delegation is coming to discuss difficulties they're experiencing with UDT in this attempt to pursue the peace process.  All for now.


Sent Monday 27th February 1989,  TC  KW


All your messages had no or very short lead-ins.  In all cases the lead-in was too short to arouse the modem in time to read the start of the message, which contains the information about page and line no. etc.

Ø. I don't know how you are sending your msgs when using TS but you don't need to use a tape recorder.  All you need to do is plug speaker/mike into 'S' of modem and hold it on mouthpiece of TS.

Ø. You can extend the lead-in by simply not pressing a key on the computer for a few seconds after starting recording or holding the speaker on the mouthpiece of TS.  Please add another 4 or 5 seconds to the lead-in.  Don't understand why you're having this problem as you've not had it before.

Ø. Also, the received signal wavers a lot, causing a lot of bad characters.  Signal sounds like one received from tape recorder with flat batteries.

Ø. When notifying me about time you can do pick-up of multiple msgs use TV time code but according to SA time, not GMT.

Ø. Not sending you TR this time as new set-up needs to have mods to radios.  John taking them out for 'repairs'.  But he doesn't quite know what sort of radios they are so show them to him and ask him again.  If he doesn't want to take them it's not too serious as we can get new ones.

Ø. Please go to a large Post Office and ask for application forms for SAPONET.  This is SA equivalent of TG.  Electronic mailbox etc.  give forms to John.  If can't get forms then phone 012 293 1156 to ask where can get.

Received Monday 27th February 1989,  TC  KW

Mon 27th :

1.. Relieved we are managing to keep in touch.  Bear in mind that whenever we hit a series of snags and lose touch I begin to examine whether the enemy is not on to us!  Not paranoia – but trying to be sure where we are putting out next footstep.

2.. Janet 1 & 2 useful.  Pity my two msgs did not get thro yesterday.  Have no time to rewrite at present as I have to attend to reports for John.  Also was trying to help re the two visits currently taking place in Lsk.  Will deal with aspects of this in reports via John and thro this means after reports done.

3.. Any news from Elsa?  Herewith msg for her.  Pls send soon as today is our anniversary.  I was hoping to get it to you yesterday but couldn't get a line on TS  :  My dearest Elsa,  Especially with you in warm embrace for the years we have had together and for the years still to come.  Your love, the commitment we share and our determination to live out our lives together despite these turbulent times so full of separation and loneliness, the delightful family we nonetheless are building, have been and are my source of strength.  Whatever happens, this oneness of ours is a core that is inviolate to all the assaults that the enemy can launch against us and the struggle which is our life.  Deepest love to you and the children.  Look forward to hearing from you.  Always your Tony.

4.. Ken, thanks for suggestions.  Will implement as many as can be used immediately.  Ends finito


Sent Tuesday 28th February 1989,  TC  FD  (15)

Janet to Tony 27th:

We've now established that Linus Dlamini was given R1000 – by J for the work.  His mission is to expand J's network.  Alphons sees no conflict save that he might report on RPC's special ctee to J which could lead J to start sniffing around.  Pls find way of pre-empting this.

Janet to Tony 28th

Re Nevo :  There's still a lot of indecision on when he started to work for enemy;  he so willingly cooperated when he was arrested.  At time of his arrest (11/12/86) he's related to Achmed, the most senior forward areas.. (bad data from Ray)…clear the enemy attached great importance to this 'capture' because interrogators from main centers throughout the country participated in his debrief.  No force of any kind was used on him.  Coupled with this, once he decided to co-op, he was actually instrumental to the construction of the legend for his re-infiltration into the ANC

He gave detailed information on the workings of the co-ordinating as well as the RPMC structures.  He was chairman of both structures.

He provided details on persons infiltrated by Island RPMC as well as those involved in his own infiltration.  These are:  City,  Nomgcobo Sangweni.

He was arrested in Amina flat in Overpoort, Durban, Flat 12 and revealed Thabi Shange as person who organized flat for him.

He revealed Mpilo as MHQ person and Velelo Tom as his contact in Transkei.

He revealed following internal operatives who were being serviced by Island  machinery :  Thabi Shange;  Justice Nblangisa; Nozizwe Madlala;  Joe Phahla;  Dr Beevan;  Barbra Nkwali;  Thanki Sigodi;  Zola Khoza;  Papi Khanare;  Kinose Thulo;  Pitso and wife Vicky;  Dr Dabula;  Tom Letseonyo;  Duke Nomnganga.

Pointed out house of Barbra Nkwali and confronted Nomgcobo in interrogation.\\Revealed those who operated in operation in Transkei.

Simphiwe Mogduso transported him to Island after his release and may be involved in enemy's transport system.

Luck Mgjima was part of the group that escaped with Nevo.

Mkukisi Mabhuda is suspect and was working with Nevo.  MHQ.  His tasks in ANC included following:

Ø. Promotion of anti-sanctions trend

Ø. Promotion of idea of negotiation between ANC and SA government

Ø. Promote disillusionment

Hamba kahle

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